Wicca

An ye harm none, do what ye will.

The Coven

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Greetings All!

This article was written by me several years ago, but I thought it might be of interest here, as it discusses several issues relevant to modern Witches. Any thought or feedback most welcome! Please remember, that although the historical stuff is pretty general, the other parts of the article are my own ideas, and not necessarily applicable outside of my own tradition:)

Covens and Witches

In 1662, Isobel Gowdie of Auldearne made four separate confessions of being a Witch, and in the process, gave the word “Coven” to the world. Although there is no other historical evidence for this word, it has proved to be one of the most lasting facets of Witchcraft – ask anyone today what Witches do, and the answer will almost certainly include the fact that they meet in groups, called “Covens”.

So given that a number of modern Witches do, in fact, either run, or belong to, a Coven – just what is its purpose in 20th (and 21st) century Western Civilization? Why has this word of such dubious historical veracity survived over three hundred years? Is there a place in our modern world for a social group which, as far as we know, occurred only in 17th century Scotland?

The very fact of its survival for over three hundred years argues that there is a place for such a group. In my own case, I have been a member of, and run, Covens of Witches for a number of years, and it is a social model which fits extremely well within modern society.

The structure of a coven varies, but generally has one or two leaders, and a number of members of varying levels of experience. In a sense, the modern Coven has replaced the tribal family, and its members often fulfil familial roles, which are no longer available to them in the family in which they were born.

Some researchers have commented that many modern Witches come from a background which was disrupted; i.e., did not provide a safe family environment during their formative years. As I know a great many Witches for whom this was not the case, I think this is only a partial reason, and only for some people.

Humanity itself seems to be inherently tribal; any common bond between people will generally result in the creation cults or sub-cultures, where those of a like-mind will bond together. They will evolve their own social order (generally hierarchical), have their own common language, and often are identifiable by their demeanour and appearance.

Witches gather together in Covens for very much the same sorts of reasons; we are apart from general society by virtue of our beliefs and practices. Meeting with others who think and feel similarly to ourselves gives us the opportunity to share ideas and skills, as well as being able to practice our Craft.

A modern Coven provides a family-style environment, where the “Elders” can, by virtue of their experience, give encouragement, support, and advice to those seek to learn about Witchcraft. As with all families, Covens have very unique and individual ways of approaching this. Just as no two families are the same, neither are any two Covens.

Some Covens are run by people with an academic bent, and as would be the case in any family, this characterizes the way in which their “children” are brought up. Other groups are oriented towards a more simple approach, and the oral traditions play an important role in the way in which the Coven is structured. Some combine the these two approaches, and the variations upon the basic themes are endless.

For any “family” to exist harmoniously, everyone within the group must feel a part of the group, and wish to learn and grow within that group environment. With a path such as Witchcraft, with its emphasis upon personal growth and development, it is likely that individuals who may at one time have been happy within their family group, will change, and wish to move away. This is a perfectly natural process, and the wise coven leaders will send those people off with their love and blessing. Trying to keep them would be like trying to keep your sons and daughters tied to your apron strings forever!

Ultimately, and despite the popularity of the word “coven”, I do believe that most Witches are solitary in nature, and will generally spend at least part of their lives without being a member of, or running, a coven. I think the inward exploration during these periods is vital to self-development, just as we believe it is important to encourage social-awareness in children. However, I also believe that at some stage it is important to learn the practices of Witchcraft from another person; to be an apprentice, if you will; because the act of passing knowledge from one person to another cannot be replicated by books, correspondence courses, or be self-taught. This may seem an almost impossible task to some people, but as all the magical traditions teach: when the student is ready, the teacher will appear! What’s more, it’s true!

B*B Julia


Coven warning

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Coven, photo by Barry LewisListen up kiddies, ’cause this is serious. Being a teenage witch, I can relate to many problems that are being discovered by the many younger members of our religion. I know that as teenagers, we are indeed very inquisitive and very social people. This is absolutely normal for human beings, and we are expected to be this way.

If a teenager is practicing witchcraft, a religion that is still being frowned upon and persecuted in too many parts of the nation, they may feel an extra sense of isolation. Along with the usual feelings of rejection, fear, inequality, low self-esteem, and various other emotional problems that afflict today’s teens, this can be a real kicker. A teenager may want to seek out people who share their beliefs or interests. This is completely normal, for it is how we chose our friends during those formidable high school years and beyond, but when it involves an alternative religion, one must tread lightly. Continue reading


Imbolc

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2 February NH
31 July SH
First Full Moon in Aquarius

Some etymologists believe the word ‘Imbolc’ comes from the Gaelic Oi-melc, ewe’s milk. A variation of the spelling, ‘Imbolg’ is also common. This festival is especially sacred to Brigid, which is why it is also called ‘Brigantia’. Among Christians, it is known as ‘Candlemas’, a festival of candles.

This festival is dedicated both to the Goddess and the God, celebrating the light returning once again to the land.

The Goddess is seen as being Mother, as she has recently given birth to the Sun God, and is nurturing Her young Son. In some traditions the Goddess is seen as dwelling in the Underworld during the cold, harsh winter times as the Earth is barren. Near Imbolc, however, the Earth is beginning to show signs that the winter is receeding. Therefore the Goddess is also seen as Maiden, young as the growing year.

In many traditions, Yule is the time when the God is reborn anew, the day of the longest night of the year. After this, the daylight hours start getting longer, until the peak at Litha. Around Imbolc it becomes more noticible that the days are indeed lengthening and the Sun rises earlier.

Neo-pagans today celebrate Imbolc in various ways. In some traditions the Goddess is invited to leave the Underworld and live again in the Middle World, or Nature is called back. Sometimes invited by invocation, by one person or many in a coven ceremony, sometimes by lighting candles, or bonfires, or chanting, dancing, leaving offerings, lighting candles, etc.

The Celtic Goddess Brigid (Bride) is often invoked at Imbolc. She is seen as being a ‘Fire Goddess’ and is therefore very appropriate when considering that this is a festival to celebrate the return of the Sun. For those who favour a Roman pantheon Vesta is also suitable.

Popular themes for this time of year include ‘Reawakening’, ‘Purification’ and ‘Initation’. Imbolc is a favourite time for initation among many covens, or if already initiated, Reaffirmations to the Goddess and the God.


Moon Phase Terminology

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New Moon:

The Moon is not illuminated by direct sunlight. Here, the Moon is Maiden.

Waxing Crescent:

The visible Moon is partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is increasing. The Moon is Maiden.

First Quarter:

One-half of the Moon appears illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is increasing. The Moon here is Maiden/Mother.

Waxing Gibbous:

The Moon is more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is increasing. Three days before the Full Moon. The Moon here is Mother.

Full Moon:

The visible Moon is fully illuminated by direct sunlight. Here the Moon is Mother.

Waning Gibbous:

The Moon is less than fully but more than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is decreasing. Three days after the Full Moon. The Moon here is Mother.

Waning Crescent:

The Moon is partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is decreasing. The Moon here is Mother/Crone.

Last Quarter:

One-half of the Moon appears illuminated by direct sunlight while the illuminated part is decreasing. Here, the Moon is Crone.

As the Moon takes an average of 29.5 days (not 28 days as most people think) to orbit the earth we can have either 12 or 13 full moons in a year.

In the case where we have a 13th full moon in a year (2 full moons in one month) the second full moon in the same month is called a “Blue Moon”.


Samhain

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31 October NH
30 April SH
First Full Moon in Scorpio

Most people are more familiar with Samhain than some of the other Wiccan and neo-pagan festivals because of customs associated with Hallowe’en and Bonfire Night in England.

Samhain is often seen as the old Celtic New Year, though it is not certain that this was the start of the New Year in all Celtic areas. It may seem strange that this season of death be considered the new year, for this is the time when the harvest is over, this is the season of rusty leaves, grey mists and an ever-increasing bite in the air is present. Life is fading, sleeping or dying. However, in ending cycles one can create new ones. In this time of death one becomes aware that new life will come, from under this frost bitten land. When outer life decays it is the inner strength that must become stronger to persevere.

The God is true Lord of the Underworld at this time, and the Goddess is the Wise Crone. They are both old and clothed in Mystery. This is a time of death, leading then to rebirth once more at Yule.

The Goddess is present as Crone and Wisewoman. Her time of fruits and harvest is complete. Now She offers secrets of the inner realm, of wisdom and magickal power. Within Her glimmers the light of the Maiden, for She is also seen as Lady of Life-in-Death, as Mother too, for she carries the Sun God in the secrecy of Her womb.

The God, having been cut down with the corn of Lammas and Mabon, is making the final journey into darkness and is with present as Lord of the Underworld.

The veil between this world and the spirit world is thin at this time, and it is traditional to ask the beloved dead to be with us – but they are asked, never commanded or summoned.

The God’s descent is honoured by identifying with the way life is retreating, and by allowing what must die in our lives to do so. The Crone is honoured by seeking Her wisdom.

It is a time of coming to terms with death, not only the death of the body, but the death of other things that have ceased over the year, such as relationships, jobs, hobbies, material wealth.

Samhain takes place during Scorpio, which is ruled by the element water. Water transforms and changes, and during Samhain it is a good time to meditate and wash away the pains and sorrows that have taken place during the course of the year.

The theme of this festival is ‘descent’ – descent into our own Underworld, our inner minds – facing our fears, discovering latent talents.


Witchcraft versus Wicca

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Witchcraft is, literally, the ‘craft of the witch’. Which is the skill of being able to work magick; especially magick utilizing personal power in conjunction with the energies within stones, herbs, colours, and other natural objects. While this may have spiritual overtones, witchcraft, by this definition is not a religion. However, some followers of Wicca incorrectly use this word to denote their religion.

A witch was anciently, a European practitioner of the remnants of pre-Christian folk magick, particularly that relating to herbs, healing, wells, rivers and stones (ie: One who practices witchcraft).

Later, this term’s meaning was deliberately altered to denote demented, dangerous, supernatural beings who practiced destructive magick and who threatened Christianity. This change was a political, monetary and sexist move on the part of organized religion, not a change in the practice of witches. This later, erroneous meaning is still accepted by many non-witches today.

Some members of Wicca to describe themselves also use this word to describe what they are. However, witchcraft can be practiced by people of any faith. One can be a Wiccan witch, a Jewish witch, a Christian witch, a Muslim witch, etc.

Wicca is a contemporary Pagan religion with spiritual roots in Shamanism and the earliest expressions of reverence of nature.

Among Wicca’s major motifs are: reverence of the Goddess and the God; reincarnation; magick; ritual observance of the Full Moon; astronomical and agricultural phenomena; spheroid temples, created with personal power, in which rituals occur.

Not all witches are Wiccan, and not all Wiccans are witches, as witchcraft by itself is not a religion, and not all Wiccans practice magick.


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